On this special emergency episode of WARTIME we discuss the removal of Confederate statues and monuments. We detail their history, meaning, and symbolism. I give my opinion, and you might be surprised...
From 1791 to 1804, the enslaved peoples of the Caribbean’s richest island rebelled for their freedom. Led by a former enslaved man turned successful planter, the rebellion on Saint-Domingue was one of the bloodiest and horrible spells of violence in modern history. Taking many forms and costing thousands of lives, the Haitian Revolution overturned an old order, and put the entire New World on edge. After all the struggle and death, the world would never be the same. On this episode, we discuss the Haitian Revolution.
In 1798 the American nation was embroiled in partisan conflict. With total control of the government, President John Adams and his Federalist Congress prepared for war with France. As part of their planning, the Adams Administration proposed a radical series of new laws including a “House Tax” that stirred resentment throughout the country. One of these groups was Pennsylvania’s vast German minority, and their animosity boiled over into a rebellion just a few miles from the capital city of Philadelphia. On this episode we discuss Fries “Hot Water” Rebellion of 1798.
Just ten years after the American Revolution, the frontier was once again raising arms. Buried in debt, Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton placed an excise tax on domestically produced whiskey. Considering it a terrible burden, angry frontier farmers rose up in open rebellion against the United States in the vast Ohio Country. In the end, President George Washington saddled up his horse and led the American army as Commander-in-Chief one final time. On this episode we discuss the Whiskey Rebellion.
Just three years after the American Revolution, rebellion stirred once more in Massachusetts. When state debts become too great, state officials demanded that backcountry farmers pay their dues at once. With foreclosures skyrocketing under the weight of crushing taxes, Revolutionary War veterans took up arms once more. “No Taxation Without Representation” was back in a big way, and under the leadership of Daniel Shays the rebellion threatened to end the American Republic in its earliest years. On this episode we discuss Shays’ Rebellion.
By the 1740’s, the city of New York was the second largest slaveholding city in North America. Since its earliest days as a cultural melting pot under the flag of the Dutch, the city held African slaves as a permanent underclass and became a slave trading commercial giant. After being taken over by the English in 1667, tensions amongst the enslaved classes began to boil over into open rebellion, and fear and panic flooded the streets of Manhattan. On this episode we discuss the New York City’s Slave Rebellions of 1712 and 1741.
A full five years before the American Revolution, backcountry farmers in North Carolina took up arms. While often grouped in with the later Patriot movement, the Regulators were had little interest in royal separation. Instead of fighting as revolutionaries, the North Carolina Regulation was an effort to root out corruption from within the colonial government by any means necessary. Culminating with the now infamous Battle of Alamance, the War of the Regulation remains one of the most contentious actions in the history of Colonial America. On this episode we discuss the Regulators.
Following the expedition of Vitus Bering in 1741, the Russian Empire planted its flag firmly in North America. With riches in mind, traders and trappers from Siberia soon found a wealth of furs and opportunity in the great wilderness of Alaska. Although the Russians prospered as North America’s fourth colonial superpower, its unfettered exploitation of the native Aleutic peoples backfired in the form of open rebellion. From 1763 to 1804, Russian North America was plagued by warfare, and the strains of a globalized economy began to take its toll on the tribal societies of Alaska. On this episode we discuss the rebellions of Russia’s secret North American empire.
In the summer of 1680 a revolution swept through the deserts of Spanish New Mexico. Led by the fabled Popé, the Pueblo Revolt saw native warriors rise up against oppressive Spanish rule in the Rio Grande River Valley. After only two weeks of fighting, Popé’s warriors accomplished the unthinkable forcing the imperialists out of their ancestral homeland, an inspiration to revolutionaries for centuries to come. On this episode we discuss the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.
A century before the American Revolution, a sweeping Indian rebellion sent New England reeling. Led by Metacom, known locally as King Phillip, warriors raided and devastated Puritan towns on a massive scale. Considered by many as the bloodiest per capita war in American history, King Phillip’s War left a permanent scar on the psyche of the Puritan’s great City on a Hill. On this episode we discuss King Phillip’s War. It’s the Season Six Premiere!
One hundred years ago this week America was gripped in fear and panic. In a span of two weeks, five people were attacked and four were killed as a result of the first shark attacks in modern US history. Known as the destination for the debonair, the Jersey Shore became the scene of a bloody collision of man vs. beast that would ultimately inspire the literary and cinema classic “Jaws”. Most shockingly of all were the deaths of two people in a shallow tidal creek over thirty miles from the open ocean. The search for the Jersey Man-Eater would eclipse World War I in newspaper coverage that summer, and a century later the culprit remains unknown. On this episode we discuss the Jersey Shore Shark Attacks of 1916.
Less than a year after the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom, American soldiers were fighting house to house in the city of Fallujah. Known as a hotbed of radical activity, Fallujah saw Coalition forces storming buildings and trading machine gun fire with an almost invisible enemy. Fought by Army, Marines, and Naval servicemen, the month-long struggle known as Operation Phantom Fury stands as the harshest fighting seen by US soldiers since the Vietnam War. After a month of fighting the city was recaptured, and the final chapter remains to be written. On this episode we discuss Operation Phantom Fury: The Second Battle of Fallujah.
On July 30th, 1864 a Confederate force under the command of Brigadier General John McCausland captured the city of Chambersburg, PA. A year after the terrible bloodletting at Gettysburg, this time the Southern Rebels returned seeking revenge for union depredations in Virginia. After ransoming the town for $500,000, the Confederate General torched the city filled with noncombatants. The Burning of Chambersburg remains as a shocking reminder of the brutal reality of the American Civil War, and a seminal moment in the conflict. On this episode we discuss the Burning of Chambersburg.
In June of 1876, on the eve of America’s 100th birthday, two armies went to war. Led by the war chief Sitting Bull, the peoples of the Great Plains clashed with George Armstrong Custer’s vaunted 7th Cavalry. Due to negligence on all levels of command and the supreme horsemanship of the Plains Indians, Custer’s men were thoroughly defeated. Now almost 150 years later controversy still swirls around the events that transpired on those grassy Montana plains. On this episode we discuss The Battle of the Little Bighorn: Custer’s Last Stand.
In 1756 the Colony of Pennsylvania was at war. With the incursion of the French, the Western Delaware peoples of the Ohio Country raided and burned the frontier villages of William Penn’s Peaceable Kingdom. Although the colonial government was staunchly Quaker and did not believe in a standing army, the efforts of Benjamin Franklin rallied the province into action. In September of 1756 Colonel John Armstrong led 300 frontiersmen into the wilderness to raid and destroy the Delaware village of Kittanning. Although celebrated at the time, modern historians question the Kittanning Raid’s true motivations and effectiveness. On this episode we discuss the Kittanning Raid of 1756.
After two years of combat Confederate General Robert E. Lee moved his army north. At the centerpiece of what is now known as the Gettysburg Campaign the Southern officer planned a full scale invasion of the United States. Although he had tallied numerous victories, it would not be until Lee could persuade northern voters to reject President Abraham Lincoln in 1864 that his rebellion would truly be a success. After days of foraging and skirmishing, the Army of Northern Virginia accidently crossed a Union scout party leading to the largest battle in the history of the Western Hemisphere. On this episode we discuss the Gettysburg Campaign.
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Called “the town too tough to die,” Tombstone, AZ was made infamous for hosting the now-legendary Gunfight at the OK Corral. In October of 1881, local law enforcement officers engaged a party of suspect criminals in a shootout; despite lasting only thirty seconds, the firefight has become a watershed moment in Western History. Although many have glamorized the moment, the days leading up to the event have shrouded the story in mystery. While some view the gunfight as the ultimate conquest of law and order over disorder, others believe it may have been nothing more than a premeditated assassination against unarmed victims. With the smoke now cleared, controversy is the only certainty. On this episode we discuss the Gunfight at the OK Corral. On this episode we discuss the Gunfight at the OK Corral.
For three days in November of 1965 Americans soldiers found themselves surrounded by an unseen enemy in the jungles of Southeast Asia. In what would become the first battle of the Vietnam War, US troops squared off with the People’s Army of Vietnam in the Ia Drang Valley. Badly outnumbered and undersupplied, the American troops fought to defend a tiny clearing in a dense rainforest non-stop for over fifty hours. Though the communist forces were ultimately pushed back by the awesome airpower of the United States, the North Vietnamese gained valuable intelligence on how to wage war against the enemy superpower. For US citizens watching at home and abroad, the battle of the Ia Drang Valley was sent a clear message that the Vietnam War was far from over, and was only just beginning. On this episode we discuss the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley.
In 1942 the state of California was in panic as rumors of an oncoming Japanese attack swelled to epic proportions. That February a Japanese submarine bombarded an oil refinery near Santa Barbara beginning an irrational Spring and Summer of paranoia and fear. Over the next six months, the Japanese would strike California, Oregon, and British Columbia three more times bringing World War II closer to home than ever before. Amidst the confusion, the city of Los Angeles opened fire on an unknown object for an entire night, only to discover that it was nothing at all. Still called the Battle of Los Angeles, this event has been a hotbed for conspiracy and sensationalism ever since. On this episode we discuss the West Coast Invasion Scare.
As America recovered from its terrible Civil War, unrest was stirring on the Great Plains. As the United States pushed westward, recent railroad construction brought on new conflict with a new enemy. Roman Nose, a warrior of the Cheyenne peoples, had set out to defend his ancestral home from the Americans and soon became the face of resistance in the region. In September of 1868 a party of fifty US soldiers came under attack on a tiny island on the Arikaree River, and for three harrowing days exchanged fire with a party of warriors that outnumbered them ten to one. Although the struggles on the Plains would continue in the years to come, this battle remains a remarkable example of heroism and bravery. On this episode we discuss the Battle of Beecher Island.
In the midst of the greatest conflict in world history, the Soviet Union began to conquer surrounding nations in an attempt to build their mighty empire. Although some fell without resistance, the Scandinavian country of Finland valiantly resisted their advances. Fought for only five months, the “Winter War” between Finland and the USSR saw some of the worst fighting conditions ever witnessed. Fought in temperatures averaging forty degrees below zero, the USSR finally invaded its northern neighbor with a fighting force that was three times larger than the D-Day Invasion three years later. On this episode we discuss the Winter War.
Only six months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto sought to finish off what was left of the American Navy. Circumstances would be different this time however as American codebreakers learned of the oncoming attack in advance. At the Battle of Midway the US Navy turned the tables on the Japanese and scored their biggest victory of World War II’s Pacific Theater. Although the war was still far from over, many historians speculate that Midway was an early turning point in the conflict that would pay dividends in the years to come. On this episode we discuss the Battle of Midway.
President James K. Polk took over the White House with a vision, and in in 1846 he set his dreams into reality. Like many Americans at the time, Polk believed in America’s “Manifest Destiny” to take over all of North America. Standing in his way was the newly formed Republic of Mexico, and Polk took extreme measures to manufacture a war that forever change the continent. This conflict would add the entire Southwest to the American nation, and spur the first true anti-war movement in US history. Although few understand its importance today, the long legacy of the war has soured US-Mexican relations ever since and remains critical to understanding the growth of the United States. On this episode we discuss the Mexican-American War.
On September 11th, 2012 armed rebels representing the jihadist Ansar al-Sharia attacked an American diplomatic compound in the Libyan city of Benghazi. Greatly outnumbered, a contingent of American security contractors valiantly held off the attack for over thirteen hours. At the end of the fighting countless Libyans and four Americans were dead including a US Ambassador. Now with the 2016 election looming in the distance, lingering questions still remain, and the city’s name will forever live in infamy. On this episode we discuss the Battle of Benghazi.
“The Great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by blood and iron.” A Prussian noble by birth, Otto von Bismarck used political cunning a brute force to shake 19th century Europe to its core. Wholly committed to diplomacy at the point of a gun, Bismarck unified the disjointed states of the former Holy Roman Empire into a unified state known as the Second Reich. While he remains the picture of conservatism in the 21st century and a hero of the German people, questions remain about Bismarck’s motives; his achievements however are without equal. On this episode we discuss Otto von Bismarck, “The Iron Chancellor."
Known in England as the Princess of Virginia, Pocahontas would become the face of the New World for thousands of Europeans. Although her early life remains a mystery, the arrival of the Jamestown colonists in the 17th century would sky rocket her to fame and bring her people to misfortune. After being the subject of a fictitious major motion picture in the 1990’s, we are more distant from the incredible life and legacy of Pocahontas than ever before. Although she did not paint with all the colors of the wind, she remains one of the most important native figures in North American and European history. On this episode we discuss Pocahontas.
The British Isles found themselves torn to pieces by war, and a new legend rose out of Scotland. Born William Wallace, this twenty-something warrior rose to prominence by showing undying commitment to the cause of independence. A natural leader and a tall in stature, Wallace became the face of resistance to England’s Edward I and revealed a penchant for brute force and violence. Although he was romanticized by the Mel Gibson film, Wallace was no Braveheart, but would become so much more. On this episode we discuss William Wallace.
In 1822 a former slave took the name of Denmark Vesey and sent the antebellum south into a tailspin. Born in the Caribbean, Vesey purchased his own freedom for $600 and quickly became one of the most visible figures of African-American liberation in the city of Charleston. Though he was himself free, Vesey worked closely with enslaved peoples and organized what would have been the largest slave uprising in American history. Betrayed by his own people and brutally executed, Vesey’s impact aroused the political emotions of the South to pass aggressive new laws that moved the country one step closer to civil war. On this episode we discuss Denmark Vesey.
A member of the powerful Lakota Sioux nation, the young warrior known as Crazy Horse rose to prominence as a quiet defender of the Great Plains. Faced with a relentless incursion by westward moving immigrants from the United States, Crazy Horse rallied one of the strongest resistance movements in the history of North America. Beginning with his witness to many terrible atrocities by white soldiers as a child, Crazy Horse would leave a permanent mark on the growing American nation by defeating its greatest commander at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. On this episode we discuss Crazy Horse, Defender of the Plains.
Captain Edward J. Smith lived a sailor’s life and commanded some of the largest vessels in world history, but his reputation would be forever remembered as the man that piloted Titanic. Although many believe that his actions lead to the massive ship’s 1912 sinking and the deaths of over 1500 souls, many speculate as to his condition to even pilot the vessel. Just one year before Titanic made history, Smith faltered as Captain of its sister ship Olympic, and swore that after Titanic’s first voyages he would retire for good. On this episode we discuss Captain Edward J. Smith, RMS Titanic.
Born into wealth and taking office after the Disputed Election of 2000, George W. Bush was elected as a peacetime president. Soon after taking office the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 transformed his low-risk tenure of office into one of war and conquest. Although he tallied the highest approval rating in presidential history in the days following the attacks, he would leave office with the lowest public support in modern history. His actions were controversial and his election was contentious, but only after leaving office did his vision for a free and democratic world finally begin to emerge. On this episode we discuss George W. Bush.
Born into American Royalty, Robert E. Lee of Virginia spent his life in the service of the United States of America. Although he was an avid patriot, upon the beginning of the American Civil War he raised his staff against his own country, and became a living legend in his own time. Long after his death the life of Lee is still debated however as some view him as a hero, while others as nothing more than America’s most famous traitor. On this episode we discuss the life and legacy of Robert E. Lee.
After a party of Roman soldiers devastated her family the Iceni Queen Boudica staged the largest rebellion in the history of the empire. With vengeance in her heart and a nation at her back Boudica ransacked, pillaged, and plundered her way to victory in Roman Britain. Although there were four Roman Legions nearby, Boudica and her British warriors reduced Caesar’s occupation of Britain to ashes. Just as suddenly as it began however Boudica’s rebellion collapsed when the Roman General Paulinus defeated her army of over 200,000 warriors at the Battle of Watling Street. On this episode we discuss Boudica, Warrior Queen of Britain.
From his humble beginnings in the state of Iowa to a prosperous career in international mining, Herbert Hoover would become one of the most beloved figures of the early twentieth century. Using his personal wealth to feed thousands of people, Hoover was considered the ideal presidential candidate in the 1928 election. That year his victory would be so great it would be dubbed “a landslide,” and he appeared set to become one of the most popular presidents of modern time. In 1929 however that all changed as the Great Depression devastated the United States, and millions blamed him for the collapse. Now eighty years later many believe that Herbert Hoover did nothing as his country fell to pieces, however closer inspection changes that narrative in radical ways. On this episode we discuss president Herbert Hoover.
Lasting 68 years, Kinich Janaab Pakal is the longest reigning monarch in the history of the Western Hemishphere. Starting in 615, Pakal ruled transformed the Mayan city-state of Palenque from an often conquered client city to a regional powerhouse in Southern Mexico. Known for his immense building projects, the discovery of Pakal’s intact tomb has led some to call him the Tutankhamun of the Americas. In a Mayan society fueled by endless competition and brutal war, this great king stands as a giant amongst others of his day. On this episode we discuss Kinich Janaab Pakal, King of Palenque.
In the tumultuous history of Southern Africa one man reigns supreme and his exploits were nothing short of revolutionary. Shaka Zula was born to humble beginnings and ostracized by his father, but through political intrigue and extraordinary violence would come to rule the Zulu nation. Using innovative new tactics yet unseen in Sub-Saharan Africa, Shaka’s reign would become one of brutal conquest and absolute consolidation. By the end of his life the Zulu Empire would be home to over a quarter of a million people and be the premiere superpower of Southern Africa. On this episode we discuss Shaka Zulu, his life and legacy.
Born in the 15th century in the tiny kingdom of Wallachia, Vlad the Impaler instituted a reign of terror unseen in the annals of European history. A despot in his own time and a monster long after his death, this Wallachian warlord set a new standard for violence and oppression. While the rest of Europe was on the verge of a renaissance, the looming threat of Muslim invasion from the Ottoman Empire transformed this murderous tyrant into a defender of Christendom and a hero of the faithful. Years later his death is still a mystery, and interest in his life and times are more popular than ever. On this episode we discuss Vlad Dracula, the Impaler Lord.
In the fourth century BCE the Macedonian kingdom conquered all of Greece and eventually the known world. Leading this charge was an ambitious twenty-something named Alexander; the end of his life he would be called “the Great.” But who was this figure, where was his past, and what was his path to glory? On our Season Four premiere we discuss Alexander the Great, the Master and Ruler of the world.
With the British Army coursing through the Southern Colonies, the Patriot Movement was reeling. After a disastrous defeat at Camden, new British commander Charles Cornwallis tangled with the American General Nathaniel Greene in the backcountry of the Carolinas. Ultimately, Lord Cornwallis defied the orders of his superior officer and invaded the Colony of Virginia…a maneuver that would seal his fate and the fate of a nation forever. On this episode we discuss the year 1781.
After five years of combat the British Empire was failing in its North American colonies. After trying and failing to capture the rebel army in the northeast, the Court of St. James proposed a dramatic new shift in the size and scope of the war. Believing that the King still had a majority of loyal support in the South, British forces sailed en masse for an invasion of South Carolina and Georgia. After tremendous victories and Savannah and Charleston, mistakes made by the empire would leave them second guessing their new strategy. On this episode we discuss the year 1780 and the Southern Strategy.
With less than 45,000 troops to their name and crippled by debt, the British Empire was desperate. Knowing that a conscript draft would be unpopular and over budget, Parliament turned to the disunited states of the Holy Roman Empire to fill their ranks. Although often called “mercenaries,” the German soldiers recruited to fight in North America were anything but, and most were forced to serve against their will. On this episode we discuss the Hessians. Remember, my new book “Hessians: Mercenaries, Rebels, and the War for British North America will be released this spring.
The year 1779 saw the American Revolution take a brutal turn. With the entrance of France and Spain into the conflict, Britain focused its military efforts on protecting interests around the world. With the American rebellion still in full swing, the fighting descending into a terrible partisan war pitting neighbor versus neighbor, and tribe versus tribe. Sensing new opportunity due to foreign money, General George Washington launched a campaign to eliminate the Iroquois from the face of the continent by ravaging their homes and families. While most of the warriors were busy fighting rebels, three Patriot armies laid waste to all of Iroquoia leaving only smoking ruins in their wake. On this episode we discuss George Washington’s annihilation of the Iroquois.
What began as a tiny rebellion in a handful of distant colonies was rapidly changing. Following the American victory at Saratoga, the empire of France pledged its support to the Patriot cause and breathed new life into the American Revolution. After a harsh and terrible winter at Valley Forge, followed by a drastic reversal of fortunes due to French monies, George Washington’s Continental Army was finally ready for primetime. But the war itself would soon morph, and distant lands rarely associated with the American revolutionaries would now find themselves embroiled in conflict. On this episode we discuss the forgotten legacy of the year 1778.
By the year 1777 the British Empire was fighting a losing battle. Sensing the rebellion in the American colonies was still a regional flare up of hostilities, General John Burgoyne set off to slice North America in two. In what would be called the Saratoga Campaign, 10,000 British soldiers invaded the colony of New York from their base in Quebec and seemed all but unstoppable. But, in a dramatic turn of fortunes the Patriot commander Horatio Gates defeated Burgoyne and gave the fledgling revolution new life at the battles of Saratoga that fall. The consequences would be drastic, and the small insurrection that began in Boston would soon spread across the globe. On this episode we discuss the 1777: The Year of the Hangman.
After the British disaster at Bunker Hill, General William Howe abandoned Boston and took refuge in Canada. While George Washington’s Continental Army raced toward New York, the largest invasion force in the history of the empire stormed the shores of Long Island. After one disastrous defeat after another, a desperate George Washington crossed the Delaware to initiate and much needed victory that remains one of the most controversial military assaults in modern history. On this episode we discuss the year 1776; the Battle of Long Island, White Plains, Trenton and Princeton.
After shots were fired at Lexington and Concord, both British and American forces scrambled for control of the narrative. While the King’s empire flooded the city of Boston with troops and supplies, the American rebels surrounded the now occupied city. In preparation for the war to come the American Continental Congress selected George Washington to be the new commander of the Continental Army, and Patriots engaged their own imperial forces at Bunker Hill. In this episode we discuss the year 1775; Bunker Hill, George Washington, and the Invasion of Canada.
In the Spring of 1775 the British General Thomas Gage set his sights on the countryside of Massachusetts. After receiving permission from England to use force against rebel Americans if necessary, the British designed a harrowing mission to capture and confiscate a cache of illegal patriot firearms stored in the tiny village of Concord. While the British prepared their march, rebel leadership fled for their lives and a Patriot leader named Paul Revere spread his message straight into history. At the end of the day the American rebellion had taken a bloody turn as they and their imperial masters clashed in not one, but two terrible battles. On this episode we discuss the battles of Lexington and Concord.
By 1774 the political chasm between the American Colonies and the Empire of Great Britain was at an all time high. In response to the British occupation of Boston and the Coercive Acts, delegates from the American Colonies met in Philadelphia in what would become known as the First Continental Congress. Although they represented a group of politically active minds, their interpretations of the events of the previous year led them to very different conclusions, and most were far from revolution. On this episode we discuss the occupation of Boston, the establishment of a rebel Massachusetts, and the complicated politics of the First Continental Congress.
In the Summer of 1774 trouble stirred on the American Frontier as Great Britain was faced with yet another terrible Indian Uprising. Following the signing of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in the year 1768, the Iroquois effectively gave American settlers free reign of the Ohio River Valley. Although the document was officially sanctioned by the Six Nations and Imperial Administration, the Shawnees who actually lived in the region saw any European encroachment as an act of war. In one of the great powerplays in history Lord Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia, used these circumstances to manufacture a war in which he stood to profit greatly. Although labeled “Lord Dunmore’s War” in the history books few understand this terrible and bloody conflict and often miss its ties to the larger Revolutionary Age.
In the year 1768 the British Empire believed that they had honed in on the source of the troublesome sedition in the American Colonies and singled out Massachusetts as the primary culprit. In a stunning move the empire ordered General Thomas Gage to occupy the city and set in motion a path of bloodshed and chaos. In March of 1770 Bostonians were fired upon by imperial forces in an event that would become known as the Boston Massacre, and three years later colonists had their revenge at the so called Boston Tea Party. On Today’s episode we discuss Boston, Bloody Boston.
Following the close of the Seven Years’ War, the British Empire found themselves as victors of history’s largest war and the owners of an incredible debt. At the start of the conflict the imperial treasury saw its deficits climb from £74,000,000 to a staggering £130,000,000. To remedy these financial crisis administrators experimented with a number of new taxes and laws directed at the North American Colonists, and soon ignited a fervor that would only end with a bloody and terrible rebellion. But how strict were these taxes? And was Revolution the only possible outcome? On this episode we discuss the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, and the power of politics.
In the aftermath of the brutal and terrible calamity that was Pontiac’s Rebellion the rugged and undisciplined communities of the American frontier rose up. Although often glamorized for their revenge fueled ambitions, the Paxton Boys are now considered as little more than a reactionary mob of zealots. Driven by prejudice, frustration, and misinformation a ragged militia attacked and killed a peaceful community of Conestoga Indians showing no regard for their past history or present humanity. In total twenty people were murdered, brutalized, and mutilated including five women, seven men, and eight small children. While the colony of Pennsylvania debated over an appropriate response the British Empire did nothing, and soon the Paxton Boys began to march on Philadelphia itself. On this episode we discuss the Paxton Boys Rebellion and the Black Boys Rebellion.
In the Summer of the 1763 the frontier was bathed in blood and burned to the ground as a massive Indian Insurgency swept across the North American Continent. Fueled by discontent as a result of British Imperial austerity, native warriors turned to political upheaval and violent resistance in an attempt to terrorize settlers off of their ancestral hunting grounds. While the movement had many leaders and lacked true cohesion, the Ottawa Chief Pontiac in the Great Lakes and the Mingo chief Guyasuta in the Ohio Country became the face of terror on the frontier. Their actions, along with a decided inaction on the part of the empire, drove many American settlers to the brink and made open rebellion a real possibility for the first time. On this episode we discuss Pontiac’s Rebellion and the Indian Insurgency of 1763.
Welcome to Season Three of Wartime! In this season we’re discussing the American Revolutionary Era, the people, places and events that defined it, and the political ideologies that gave rise to the world’s first truly modern Republic. In the year 1763 the Empire of Great Britain scored the greatest victory in its long and storied history. With the signing of the Peace of Paris the great Seven Years’ War came to a close, and empire of France was left in ruins. With the end of the Great War for Empire King George nearly tripled the size of his domain and laid claim to nearly all of the North American Continent. But what changes would such a drastic transformation entail, and was the British Empire prepared to confront them. On this episode we discuss the year 1763 and the beginning of the American Revolutionary Era. It’s our Season Three Premiere…
After fifteen episodes spanning three continents and thousands of years Season Two of Wartime has come to a close. On this Ancient World wrap up we discuss the highs and lows of the series, the theme of season three and for the first time answer your questions live. You have written from all corners of the globe, and the conversation is stronger than ever.
More than a decade after the victory at Marathon, Greece found itself under the threat of a new menace. Commanded by the young new Emperor Xerxes I, the Persian Army returned to Europe with over 200,000 men in what was the largest invasion force the world had ever seen. While diplomacy was committed by brute force and sheer numbers, the powerful Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta joined in alliance to confront their new enemy and change Western history forever. On this episode we discuss the Second Invasion of Greece, the 300 Spartans, the Battle of Thermopylae, and the end of the Greco-Persian Wars.
At the dawn of the 5th century BCE, two worlds collided in epic and dramatic fashion as the mighty Persian Empire waged war against the city states of Greece. Beginning as a minor rebellion in the far western fringe of Darius’ empire, the conflict would explode into a full scale war that would last for five decades. Spanning dozens of battles of costing thousands of the lives, the Greco-Persian Wars have shaped western imagination for over two thousand years. In the first of this two part episode, we discuss the roots of the hostilities, the Ionian Revolt, the first Invasion of Greece and the battle of Marathon.
By the 8th century BCE the city states of Greece had arisen to their classical age and began shaping the direction of western civilization. As a scattered collection of individual powers, shared cultural attributes force historians to consider the inhabitants of the Greek mainland to be one society governed by the same world view. While having a great deal in common, the Classical Greeks often battled one another and divided their loyalties between the two superpowers of the age, the Athenians of Attica and the Spartans on the Peloponnesus. On this episode we discuss the emergence of Classical Greece and the rivalry of Athens and Sparta.
Considered by many to be the first Greeks, the Mycenaean elevated their culture through the conquest of others. Located primarily on the Greek mainland, this power would come to rule over thousands of people before setting their sites on their Minoan neighbors to the south. With the island of Crete only a short distance away, the Mycenaean conquered the Minoan people and ended their way of life. Although a complete victory, it was only then that the Myceneans truly flourished as their adopted and adapted Minoan civilization to make themselves the most powerful force in the region. On this episode we discuss the rise and fall of the Mycenaeans, the first Greeks.
Nearly 5000 years ago an advanced civilization emerged on the Mediterranean island of Crete that would come to dominate the seas. Although they left behind a plentiful supply of artifacts, palaces, and artwork, it was not until its rediscovery in the modern age that they were finally called the Minoans. While we know comparatively little about their society, it is glaringly apparent that they played a vital role in the commerce of the ancient world and the development of modern Europe. Despite these unanswered questions, archaeologists believe that a volcanic eruption and monstrous tsunami buried the secrets of the Minoan civilization for a millennia. On this episode we discuss the lost empire of the Minoans.
The Persian empire stretched over most of the known world by the death of its great king Cyrus, yet its’ might was only just beginning. Under the command of his son Cambyses II, the Egyptian civilization would be conquered, and although a rebellion would soon take hold Persia’s might was only starting to reveal itself. It was during the reign of Darius the great that the political body universally agreed upon as the ancient world’s most vast empire would achieve its full strength, and redirect the fate of the western world forever
Despite its humble beginnings, the Persian Empire would become the largest political force in world history. Although remembered for its lavish building projects and continuous cultural achievements, the Persian world would not have been possible if not for the efforts of one man. Known as Cyrus the Great, this ruler reshaped the world and built the first empire to rule of three river valleys simultaneously. From the Nile to the Indus, Cyrus was one of the only people to truly be deserving of the title great. On this episode we discuss Cyrus rise to power and the birth of the Persian Empire.
After the fall of Mesopotamia’s first great empire, two rivals vied for power in a titanic struggle for the fate of the region. The Babylonians to the south, and the Assyrians to the north, challenged one another for centuries. With a penchant for violence, the Assyrians would build the largest kingdom yet seen, only to have it wiped away with the birth of the mighty Babylonian empire. Still regarded as perhaps the most exquisite city in ancient history, Babylon’s glories ring through the annals of time. On this episode we discuss the Babylonian empire.
In the year 1922, the golden age of archaeology was in full swing. In late fall, an unlikely duo of explorers combined their efforts to make what many consider to be the greatest discovery in world history. Since their great find, Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon changed the face of archaeology and shed new light on a figure that without their efforts would have been lost to history forever. On this episode we discuss King Tut’s tomb.
Following a century of domination by an outside force, the Egyptians reclaimed their territory and began the great period of growth and expansion known as the New Kingdom. Spearheaded by a powerful lineage of aggressive pharaohs, this period is best known as the age that transformed Egypt into an empire. In part one of our two part study we will see the rise of Egypt’s most powerful female ruler and the fall of its most controversial reformer.
After years of growth, the Old Kingdom of the Egyptian world crumbled into the hands of a few elite families scattered across the Sahara desert. Although financially prosperous, these dark ages drove the land of Egypt into disarray and allowed for a new leader to reunify the kingdom. Known as an age of great cultural, militaristic, and societal achievement, the Middle Kingdom is considered a golden age of Egyptian history. But was this new system sustainable? And what forces brought it crashing down. On this episode we discuss the Middle Kingdom.
After establishing itself as an agricultural superpower, the Egyptian world developed at a frenetic pace to usher in the period of time known as the Old Kingdom. Highlighted by powerful pharaohs and endless building projects, divine kingship became a staple of Egyptian life and a primary feature of Egyptian life. For centuries these leaders constructed massive buildings in their own name until eventually their already waning support collapsed beneath their feet. On this episode we discuss the Old Kingdom.
Described by Herodotus as the gift of the Nile, the land of Egypt has captivated foreign imaginations for thousands of years. Situated on the vast Mediterranean Sea, this ancient paradise of wonder built its own unique world on the shores of its great river, and developed a culture wholly based on its presence. The society that emerged has been touted as one of the most sophisticated of the ancient world, and still draws intense examination to this day. On this episode we discuss the ancient Egyptians.
Considered by many to be the first emperor, Sargon the Great built the western world’s most powerful political domain and transformed into an empire. Known as Sumer, Sargon pushed the limits of power and set a new precedent that would be followed for thousands of years. On this episode we discuss the conquests of Sargon the Great.
Known as Mesopotamia, the land between two rivers is widely considered to be the cradle of the western world. Although home to many peoples, it was the Sumerians who earned the right to be called the world’s first true civilization. A land of great achievement and constant warfare, the Mesopotamian landscape would be the first home to power and politics that set the course for the modern age. On our SEASON TWO PREMIERE we discuss the fertile crescent.
The following broadcast was recorded live by the Pennsylvania Cable Network and is distributed weekly on PCNtv.com. In the year 1758, in the midst of the first global war in world history, the empire of Great Britain vanquished their longtime French enemies on the frontiers of North America. To signify their victory and the consolidate their power, they began to construct the largest fortification on the continent that would give them sole possession of this new and uncharted land. “Fort Pitt: A Frontier History” is in stores now. Remember, an all new season of wartime begins on February 28th.
The following broadcast was recorded live by the Pennsylvania Cable Network and is distributed weekly on PCNtv.com. “Guyasuta and the Fall of Indian America” is in stores now. Remember, an all new season of wartime begins on February 28th.
For nearly fifty years the Iroquois chief Guyasuta battled for the sovereignty and future of his people. Beginning his career with a 21 year old George Washington, Guyasuta would eventually come to fight the young Virginian in a catastrophic French alliance. Instrumental next in the Indian rebellion of 1763, Guyasuta waged a war of terror and violence against British settlements before ultimately succumbing to European control. Although he served as a peace chief early in the American Revolution, his eventual siding with the British Empire appeared to doom his people. Spanning over seven decades, Guyasuta’s life offers a front row seat to the fall of Indian America. Remember, an all new season of Wartime premieres Feb. 28!
Called the first truly world war by Winston Churchill, the Seven Years’ War pitted Great Britain and France in a titanic struggle to determine the fate of empire around the planet. Fought on five continents, the Seven Years’ War saw the world’s two superpowers engage in the largest war in world history at that time. After three years of disastrous losses, an innovative new strategy turned the tide of the war, and gave King George control over one the largest empires in history.
Called the first truly world war by Winston Churchill, the Seven Years’ War pitted Great Britain and France in a titanic struggle to determine the fate of empire around the planet. Fought on five continents, the Seven Years’ War saw the world’s two superpowers engage in the largest war in world history at that time. From 1755 to 1757 though, the war seemed to fully in French control, and the wavering British referred to this trying time as "The Years of Defeat."
Called the first truly world war by Winston Churchill, the Seven Years’ War pitted Great Britain and France in a titanic struggle to determine the fate of empire around the planet. Fought on five continents, the Seven Years’ War saw the world’s two superpowers engage in the largest war in world history at that time. In the year 1755 however the conflict was isolated to a small corner of the North American world. In part one of this three part episode we focus on the origins of the war in the year 1755.
From 1500-1800 the Caribbean Sea was the world’s most lucrative and attractive basin of trade, yet the constant threat of piracy shook the European world to its core. Known as the “Enemies of all Nations,” Piracy flourished in the Atlantic World for over one hundred years, and its effects are still as present as ever in the modern world.
At the end of the seventeenth century, the New England village of Salem was torn to pieces by the fear and paranoia of witchcraft. Although often sensationalized, the Salem Witch Trials are very real indicators of how power and politics defined the difficult and complex world of Colonial America.
In the spring of 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a hotheaded young newcomer to Virginia,
led a revolt against the colony's Indian policies. Bacon's Rebellion turned into
a civil war within Virginia bringing North America's most powerful holding to its knees, sending shock waves
throughout the British colonies and into England itself.
Often thought to be unified because of their rich history of cooperation and shared Revolution, the American Colonies of Great Britain spent the vast majority of their existence as anything but. Although all thirteen colonies would ultimately form a rebellious union in 1775, the origins of these bodies were unique. Each had its own character which is still apparent and equally contentious in the twenty-first century.
While the harrowing drama of the New World is often told as a story of two empires, the mighty struggle seen in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries between Britain and France is only the beginning. The vaunted Iroquois Confederacy controlled some of the most vital territory on the continent, and only when understood in the larger context of history does its true meaning come to fruition.
Founded in 1608, France's great experiment of empire in North America became one of the single wealthiest colonies in the world. Although it stretched from a distance that of Paris to Moscow, this imperial goliath was built on unstable foundations that would ultimately doom its very existence.
The Battle of Fort Necessity stands as one of the most controversial and misunderstood events in the long and tenuous history of North America. A clash of opposing cultures, this firefight in the wilderness defined the future of Colonel George Washington and forever altered the course of three separate empires.
During the winter of 1753, George Washington accepted the first, and potentially most dangerous, mission of his life--he was twenty-one. The resulting tale is one of international intrigue and heartbreaking disappointment that set the stage for the French and Indian War and forever changed Washington's destiny